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Desmond Morris proposed that orgasm might facilitate conception by exhausting the female and keeping her horizontal, thus preventing the sperm from leaking out. She was born and raised in Los Angeles and received her B.A. J. Rodgers, H. Cleveland, E. van den Oord, and D. Possible explanations for the G-spot were examined by Masters and Johnson, who were the first researchers to determine that the clitoral structures surround and extend along and within the labia. Vaginal and clitoral atrophy and dryness affects up to 50%–60% of postmenopausal women.[128] Testosterone levels in men fall as they age. There are theories that the female orgasm might increase fertility.[9][31][56] For example, the 30% reduction in size of the vagina could help clench onto the penis (much like, or perhaps caused by, the pubococcygeus muscles), which would make it more stimulating for the male (thus ensuring faster or more voluminous ejaculation). S. Black, P. Devereux, K. Salvanes, "Healthy (?), Wealthy, and Wise: Birth Order and Adult Health, NBER Working Paper No. While I have described several of my own papers on the topic, a number of other researchers have also taken advantage of newly available datasets in Florida and Denmark to examine the role of birth order on other important outcomes, specifically juvenile delinquency and later criminal behavior.13 Consistent with the work discussed here, later-born children experience higher rates of delinquency and criminal behavior; this is at least partly attributable to time investments of parents. Rowe, "Resolving the Debate Over Birth Order, Family Size, and Intelligence," American Psychologist, 55(6), 2000, pp. She stated that emotions of anxiety, defensiveness and the failure of communication can interfere with desire and orgasm.[90] In the late 1980s and after, Rosemary Basson proposed a more cyclical alternative to what had largely been viewed as linear progression.[91] In her model, desire feeds arousal and orgasm, and is in turn fueled by the rest of the orgasmic cycle. French researchers Odile Buisson and Pierre Foldès reported similar findings to that of O'Connell's. It may be associated with performance pressure and an unwillingness to pursue pleasure, as separate from the other person's satisfaction; often, women worry so much about the pleasure of their partner that they become anxious, which manifests as impatience with the delay of orgasm for them. For example, based on evolutionary psychology, Frank J. It is believed that the exact feeling of "orgasm" varies from one man to another.[14] Normally, as a man ages, the amount of semen he ejaculates diminishes, and so does the duration of orgasms. However, a subsequent report by Rudie Kortekaas, et al.

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For example, wealthier, better-educated parents typically have fewer children. Because it’s not just about motherhood, and birth, and family. Scientific American, a Division of Springer Nature America, Inc. Witoonchart, "Birth Order and Risky Adolescent Behavior," Economic Inquiry, 44(2), 2006, pp. This goes to say that our paper writers will give you materials that will gain an A grade when you buy an essay online. But two studies from the past three years finally found measurable effects: our position in the family does indeed affect both our IQ and our personality. Of the some 65,000 scholarly articles about birth order indexed by Google Scholar, the vast majority suffer from this problem, making the research difficult to interpret. Another possible reason for the lack or absence of a refractory period in men may be an increased infusion of the hormone oxytocin. This delay can lead to frustration of not reaching orgasmic sexual satisfaction.[119] Psychoanalyst Wilhelm Reich, in his 1927 book Die Funktion des Orgasmus (published in English in 1980 as Genitality in the Theory and Therapy of Neurosis) was the first to make orgasm central to the concept of mental health, and defined neurosis in terms of blocks to having orgastic potency. He explained that although he accepts that "clitoral orgasm plays a pleasurable and central role in female sexuality and its joys," "[a]ll these favorable attributes, however, emerge just as clearly and just as easily, whether the clitoral site of orgasm arose as a spandrel or an adaptation". Miller, Hrdy, Helen O'Connell and Natalie Angier have criticized the "female orgasm is vestigial" hypothesis as understating and devaluing the psychosocial value of the female orgasm.[9] Hrdy stated that the hypothesis smacks of sexism.[145] O'Connell said, "It boils down to rivalry between the sexes: the idea that one sex is sexual and the other reproductive. The relationship study shows that oldest, middle, youngest and only children differ in some way yet gives no indication as to how. F. Sulloway, Born to Rebel: Birth Order, Family Dynamics, and Creative Lives, New York, Pantheon Books, 1996. Look at the content of the paper.

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More generally, firstborn children are more likely to be in occupations requiring sociability, leadership ability, conscientiousness, agreeableness, emotional stability, extraversion, and openness. My Firstborn, There's No One Like You is the first of four books that use birth order principles to celebrate the special qualities of each cub in your family. Firstborns are more likely to associate with firstborns, middle-borns with middle-borns, last-borns with last-borns, and only children with only children. He is a co-editor of the American Economic Journal: Applied Economics, an editorial board member of the Journal of Economic Literature, the Journal of International Economics, the Review of Economic Studies, and the Quarterly Journal of Economics, and a program director (for trade) at the International Growth Centre. However, changes in brain activity were observed in both sexes in which the brain regions associated with behavioral control, fear and anxiety shut down. Orgasm (from Greek ὀργασμός orgasmos "excitement, swelling"; also sexual climax) is the sudden discharge of accumulated sexual excitement during the sexual response cycle, resulting in rhythmic muscular contractions in the pelvic region characterized by sexual pleasure.[1][2][3] Experienced by males and females, orgasms are controlled by the involuntary or autonomic nervous system. In more recent work, Devereux, Salvanes, and I analyze the effect of birth order on health.7 There is a sizable body of literature about the relationship between birth order and adult health; individual studies have typically examined only one or a small number of health outcomes and, in many cases, have used relatively small samples. Newspapers and morning news shows debate the importance of the latest findings (“Latter-born children engage in more risky behavior; what should parents do?”) while tossing in savory anecdotes (“Did you know that 21 of the first 23 astronauts into space were firstborns?”). Weel, "The Economics and Psychology of Personality Traits," Journal of Human Resources, 43, 2008, pp. The number of cigarettes smoked daily increases monotonically with birth order, suggesting that the higher prevalence of smoking by later-borns found among U.S. Most importantly, one needs information on both family size and birth order. Orgasm in non-human animals has been studied significantly less than orgasm in humans, but research on the subject is ongoing.

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Some women exhibit a sex flush, a reddening of the skin over much of the body due to increased blood flow to the skin. If astronauts are more likely to have well-educated, comfortable parents, then they are also more likely to come from a smaller family and thus are more likely to be a firstborn. This has led researchers to study factors that relate to within-family differences in children's outcomes. October 2013, and Journal of Population Economics, 28(4), 2015, pp. There is some debate whether certain types of sexual sensations should be accurately classified as orgasms, including female orgasms caused by G-spot stimulation alone, and the demonstration of extended or continuous orgasms lasting several minutes or even an hour.[13] The question centers around the clinical definition of orgasm, but this way of viewing orgasm is merely physiological, while there are also psychological, endocrinological, and neurological definitions of orgasm.[11][12][14] In these and similar cases, the sensations experienced are subjective and do not necessarily involve the involuntary contractions characteristic of orgasm. In our Swedish data, we took advantage of the fact that some children's biological birth order is different from their environmental birth order, due to the death of an older sibling or because their parent gave up a child for adoption. Sarrel et al. reported a similar observation in 1977. Masters and Johnson argued that, in the first stage, "accessory organs contract and the male can feel the ejaculation coming; two to three seconds later the ejaculation occurs, which the man cannot constrain, delay, or in any way control" and that, buy essay canada in the second stage, "the male feels pleasurable contractions during ejaculation, reporting greater pleasure tied to a greater volume of ejaculate".[19] They reported that, unlike females, "for the man the resolution phase includes a superimposed refractory period" and added that "many males below the age of 30, but relatively few thereafter, have the ability to ejaculate frequently and are subject to only very short refractory periods during the resolution phase". Therefore, orgasm increases the chances of conceiving with males of a high genetic quality.[133][134] Research by Randy Thornhill et al. It can additionally be achieved by stimulation of the nipples or other erogenous zones, though this is rarer.[15][16] In addition to physical stimulation, orgasm can be achieved from psychological arousal alone, such as during dreaming (nocturnal emission for males or females)[12][14][17] or by orgasm control. The function or functions of the human female orgasm have been debated among researchers.[131] Because male orgasms that expel sperm from the body into the vagina during sexual intercourse may result in conception, researchers have several hypotheses about the role, if any, of the female orgasm in the reproductive and therefore evolutionary process.[9][10][31][56] The literature started with the argument that female orgasm is a byproduct of shared early male ontogeny, where male orgasm is an adaptation.[132] Research has shifted to investigate and also support the sire-choice hypothesis, which proposes that female orgasm has been shaped by natural selection to function in the selection of high quality sires (male parents) for offspring. Firstborns are also more likely to be overweight and obese. In the novel Lady Chatterley's Lover (1928), by D.

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These results were robust to a variety of specifications; most importantly, we could compare outcomes of children within the same families. Scholars state "many couples are locked into the idea that orgasms should be achieved only through intercourse [vaginal sex]" and that "[e]ven the word foreplay suggests that any other form of sexual stimulation is merely preparation for the 'main event.'... They argue that the presence of this particular frequency of contractions can distinguish between voluntary contraction of these muscles and spontaneous involuntary contractions, and appears to more accurately correlate with orgasm as opposed to other metrics like heart rate that only measure excitation. Practices included "vaginal intercourse alone (12%), vaginal + manual stimulation of the man's and/or woman's genitals (49%), and vaginal intercourse + manual + oral (32%)" and the "[e]ncounters may also have included other practices. Evolutionary psychologists Christopher Ryan and Cacilda Jethá, in their discussion of the female orgasm, address how long it takes for females to achieve orgasm compared to males, and females' ability to have multiple orgasms, hypothesizing how especially well suited to multiple partners and insemination this is.